The body systems where B12 is important
Vitamin B12 plays a key role in many body systems and organs and this list is increasing. It is needed for energy production through the Krebs Cycle, for the synthesis of DNA via the folate cycle which affects trillions of cells in the body, and for the expression of genes through epigenetic processes. It affects the proper functioning of the nervous and peripheral systems, mood and cognitive functions and the formation of blood in the bone marrow, skin and mucous membranes, bones, the glandular system, the immune system, the digestive system, fertility and pregnancy and development of the embryo.
Vitamin B12 deficiency consequently manifests as a wide range of different symptoms, some of which appear to be unrelated or may even be misdiagnosed. B12 is fundamental to animal life and metabolism that the symptoms are also widespread.
B12 is responsible for:
- Manufacture and normal function of blood cells.
- It rapidly divides all cells from epithelial cells to bone marrow cells.
- Energy production through the Krebs Cycle.
- Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
- Nerve cell conduction.
- Endocrine systems.
- Immune systems.
- Conversion of homocysteine to methionine, then to SAMe (mood enhancing) and amino acids, with effects on many metabolic processes.
- Correct synthesis and transcription of DNA.
- Removal of toxins.